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May 01 2015

What the meat industry figured out is that you don’t need healthy animals to make a profit. Sick animals are more profitable…
Factory farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That’s the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying…We live in a world in which it’s conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood.
— Jonathan Safran Foer, Eating Animals (via acti-veg)
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And just to be sure that we’re all on the same page: there are no bright yellow school busses in Baltimore City. The police shut down public transportation and filled the streets with an army in riot gear. Thousands of teens on those same streets, trying to get home. How many were scared to make eye contact for fear of being the next Freddie Gray? How many were pissed-off enough to break a window or set a fire? 

this is so fucked up

look at this

don’t look away. don’t fucking turn your head, don’t scroll that mousewheel. fix your eyes on this because in the years to come they’re going to call this story a conspiracy theory. they’re going to call this reality, this thing that truly happened, a conspiracy theory.

but they created the circumstances which lead the youth of the city of baltimore to lash out in terror and indignation. the police treated them like animals, tried to corral them, and these kids, these children, just getting out of school, reacted.

imagine if this had happened to you. you just got out of school. all you were thinking about was your work and your friends and getting home and you get fucking teargassed by a wall of riot cops.

what would you have done under that pressure?

Our brains didn’t evolve because of meat


Many people believe that early hominids evolved large brains as a result of eating meat. However, this theory ignores several major aspects of human/primate evolution, neurobiology, and genetics.

Primates are an extremely social order. Studies have shown that “evolution of primate brains is thought to be associated with the demands of living in a complex social environment”. Because a large social group is harder to understand and negotiate, early hominids may have had to evolve larger brains to better cooperate with other group members. Multiple pieces of evidence support this.

“The fossil remains of several australopithecine and paranthropine species show that diet varied between 4.5 and 1.2 Ma, but that overall these hominids had large molars lacking well-developed shearing crests, thick enamel and powerful jaws. These dental traits indicate crushing of hard food items during mastication and a diet that included seeds, rich in protein and fat, but do not preclude a diet including underground storage organs (USOs), such as roots and tubers, covered with abrasive soil and rich in carbohydrates”. This suggests that early hominids had access to highly nutritious, plant-based foods about 4.5 million years ago (MYA). Genomic studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees diverged roughly 6.3 MYA.

“Early Homo may have relied more on tough fallback resources, perhaps including meat”, about 2.5 MYA. Humanoid tooth marks were found on bones that dated to 2.5 MYA, suggesting some meat-consumption. However, as individual humans are less than intimidating, it is likely that early Homo must have formed groups in order to scare predators away from their kills (aggressive scavenging). This also happened roughly 2.5 MYA.

So we’ve established that there was a break of just under 4 million years between our divergence from chimps and the beginning of meat-eating. This is a relatively long time for us to have developed larger brains, which makes sense, considering that “brain-expressed and brain-specific genes may all be slowly evolving for reasons of shared constraints. It seems possible that the stronger selective pressure on brain expressed genes is the consequence of the higher complexity of the biochemical network in the brain”.

When combined with the discoveries that “mammals tend to meet the energy costs of evolutionary changes in brain size by some combination of increased energy intake or reduced allocation to other functions such as growth, reproduction, digestion or locomotion“, and that “primates exhibit a strong signature for a quantitative group size effect on brain size, but all the other taxa do not. In primates, the relationship between brain and group sizes is much stronger than the relationship between brain size and any other factor”, it can be inferred that our social groups were, at least in part, responsible for development of our larger brains.

“Another trade-off prediction comes from Leonard et al., who suggest that a decrease in muscle mass and an increase in adiposity provided a potential source of energy to fuel the evolution of the human brain in two main ways. First, an energetically expensive tissue, skeletal muscle, was reduced. Second, a tissue known for its ability to store energy, fat, was increased.” This would have allowed early Homo to redirect more nutrients to the brain.

The first signs of active human hunting were found about 500,000 years ago, in “stone points from the archaeological site of Kathu Pan 1 (KP1), South Africa, which functioned as spear tips”. By this time, Homo had had a couple million years of evolution in which to develop large brains, as well as complex social structures needed for hunting. When the evolution of carnivores was examined, it was found that their brain size was extremely variable, and that “explanations other than sociality must be sought for the multiple brain-size increases and decreases observed during the evolutionary history of this clade (Carnivora)”. This suggests that humans and carnivores evolved brain size by separate mechanisms.

The disparity between humans and other primates may be attributed to  “distinctive aspects of primate cognition that evolved mainly in response to the especially challenging demands of a complex social life of constant competition and cooperation with others in the social group [the social intelligence hypothesis…humans are not just social but “ultra-social”. That is, whereas primates in general have evolved sophisticated social-cognitive skills for competing and cooperating with conspecifics, humans have also evolved skills that enable them to actually create different cultural groups, each operating with a distinctive set of artifacts, symbols, and social practices and institutions”

In conclusion, it cannot be assumed that humans evolved large brains as a result of eating meat, but rather that meat consumption and hunting were relatively recent byproducts of complex brains by way of social evolution. The effect of social groups on brain size can still be seen today, as a correlation has been found between the number of online friends a person has, and anatomical size of specific brain regions



How much do you think having adult women play teenagers in television shows contributes to the sexualization of young girls

And also to the amount of young girls that are insecure about their body


Can’t afford $11.50 to go see Mockingjay? don’t worry! turn on the news and experience the same dystopian horror for free

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This woman is kind of awesome.

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No one actually thinks all men.

Just too many men.

Just enough men to be afraid.
Just enough men that all women have experienced it.
Just enough to make it a social problem not a personal one.

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Racism is real


A random guy paid me a compliment and why it was okay




So, in starbucks today, a random guy came up to my and told me I was very pretty and nice eyes.

And, as a feminist, I was okay with it.

Because he did it correctly.

He stood four feet away from me and started out with “excuse me” and waited until I nodded before approaching. He then introduced himself and we shook hands and then he gave a compliment and went on his way.

He didnt catcall. He didnt harass. He didnt use inappropriate language. He asked for permission.

Take note, gentlemen.

i just loved the fact that he actually WAITED for her CONSENT

BEFORE approaching her

and not only that

he didn’t sexualize her

i mean

finally, someone gets it

The fact that we have to praise and exalt basic decency though

^^^ it’s too sad

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welcome to tumblr, formerly a microblogging site, now a horribly designed vehicle for awkward advertising from large conglomerates looking to connect with today’s youth
please bear with us as we further alienate our user base and continue to descend into a hurricane of corporate fuckery and soullessness
please don’t ask us again about how we ignored and mishandled ferguson, but instead enjoy the 94 man hours we sank into making sure you knew it was “talk like a pirate day”

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its 3am



can you tell i am a pro at keeping track of my files

me tooimage

April 30 2015




Old men about to scrap in Dunkin Donuts.

Drag him Seymour 

the guy eating his donut and laughing is my favorite


it’s getting really annoying how eating makes you gain weight


if you never had to actually have your rights voted on because you always had them by default i think it’s safe to say you can sit the fuck down


if you have anxiety, and you did the thing you were dreading doing, i am proud of you

if you have panic disorder, and you breathed in and out and calmed yourself down today, i am proud of you

if you are depressed, and you got out of bed today, i am proud of you

if you are a living breathing human, and you faced your life today, i am so proud of you wow

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